This page was last edited on 6 August 2018, at 10:03. According to an old belief, he is the same as Alexander the Great (reign: 356BC-323BC). He then travels to the ends of the earth, conquering or converting people until being led by al-Khidr through the land of darkness. To decorate the crown with two horns was a symbol of glory and splendor of Majestic Kings at that time. The view was reflected in other Islamic sources as well. In one of many Arabic and Persian versions of the meeting of Alexander with the Indian sages. In Arabic poems before the emergence of Islam, "Dhu l-Qarnayn" was used to refer to some kings of Yemen and al-Hirah. We said: "O Dhu'l-Qarneyn! Dhul-Qarnayn is regarded by some Muslims as a prophet, while other say that he was "a friend of God". Dhu l-Qarnayn (Arabic: ذوالقَرنَین) is the title of a character mentioned in the Qur'an.  According to Wahb ibn Munabbih, as quoted by Ibn Hisham, King Ṣaʿb was a conqueror who was given the epithet Dhu al-Qarnayn after meeting al-Khidr in Jerusalem. Moreover, some other kings of Yemen are also identified with Dhu l-Qarnayn, including Tubba' al-Aqran, the son of Shammir Yar'ash, Sa'b b. Harith, or Sa'b b. Hammal, or Sa'b b. Dhi Yazan, a son of Wa'il b. Himyar. The passage from the tafsir can be found in section 1.1 of the article (Dhul-Qarnayn in early Islamic literature). The main purpose of the verses is not to figure out the route of the journey or what Dhul Qarnayn saw but the bottom line is what he found the people doing and what decisions he made concerning them. Cyrus's travels to the west to conquer the capital of Lydia and to the east to combat Bedouin tribes agree with Dhu l-Qarnayn's travels westwards and eastwards. Elsewhere the Quran tells how the end of the world would be signaled by the release of Gog and Magog from behind the wall, and other apocalyptic writings report their destruction by God in a single night would usher in the Day of Resurrection (Yawm al-Qiyāmah). A lexicological and philological examination of the word, "qarn", in Semitic languages shows that in Akkadian, Hebrew, and Syriac languages, the word has almost the same meaning as it has in Arabic, that is, horn. ", He said: "This is a mercy from my Lord; but when the promise of my Lord cometh to pass, He will lay it low, for the promise of my Lord is true.". He is honored in Yemeni poems. (Unbelievers) whose eyes had been under a veil from remembrance of Me, and who had been unable even to hear. They asked him to build a wall between them and the people of Gog and Magog “Ya’juj and Ma’juj” who were causing mischief in the land. (thou hast authority), either to punish them, or to treat them with kindness. Dhul-Qarnayn, translated as "the possessor of the two horns," is a legendary king mentioned in Chapter 18 of The Quran, Sura al-Kahf ("The Cave"). Moreover, there is no historical evidence that Alexander ever constructed a dam as characterized in the Qur'an.  Some modern Muslim scholars are in favor of identifying him with Cyrus the Great.. The view has been rejected because the similarity between the names of the kings of Yemen and Dhu l-Qarnayn is not sufficient for the identification. Verily We established his power on earth, and We gave him the ways and the means to all ends. For example, Mundhir b. Ma' al-Sama' al-Lakhmi was called "Dhu l-Qarnayn". , Dhu al-Qarnayn also journeys to the western and eastern extremities ("qarns", tips) of the Earth. A number of different views—amounting to 20—have been developed about why Dhu l-Qarnayn was called so. , While the Syriac Legend references the horns of Alexander, it consistently refers to the hero by his Greek name, not using a variant epithet. He said: "Whoever doth wrong, him shall we punish; then shall he be sent back to his Lord; and He will punish him with a punishment unheard-of (before).  Ernst claims that Dhu al-Qarnayn finding the sun setting in a "muddy spring" in the West is equivalent to the "poisonous sea" found by Alexander in the Syriac legend. According to Ibn Kathir, the first Dhu l-Qarnayn was the son of the first Roman Caesar who was a progeny of Sam (Shem) the son of Nuh (a) and was a righteous person and a just king, and Khidr was his prime minister. This is consistent with the title, "Dhu l-Qarnayn" (holder of two horns). : "He of the Two Horns"), also spelled Zu al-Qarnayn, appears in the Quran, Surah Al-Kahf (18), Ayahs 83-101 as one who travels to east and west and erects a wall between mankind and Gog and Magog (called Ya'juj and Ma'juj). While he is never mentioned explicitly by name, the story is clearly based upon a legendary account of Alexander the Great. However, there was a disagreement about Dhu l-Qarnayn's prophethood later. , The Sufi poet Rumi (Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī, 1207-1273), perhaps the most famous of medieval Persian poets, described Dhu al-Qarnayn's eastern journey. According to these verses, some people ask the Prophet (s) about Dhu l-Qarnayn, and the Prophet's (s) response was briefly as follows: According to hadiths concerning the Asbab al-Nuzul (occasions on which verses are revealed), the inquirers were some Jews or polytheists of Mecca who were encouraged by the Jews to ask the Prophet (s) about Dhu l-Qarnayn and other issues in order to test his prophethood. The Quran narrates the story of how Allah establishes Dhul-Qarnayn as a powerful ruler on earth and allows the king the … Thus, "Dhu l-Qarnayn" is used in Persian poetry as referring to Alexander the Great. The identity of Gog and Magog and the specification of the geographical location of the dam constructed by Dhu l-Qarnayn to obstruct Gog and Magog are key to the identification of Dhu l-Qarnayn. Dhul-Qarnayn (Arabic: ذو القرنين ḏū al-qarnayn, IPA: [ðuːlqarˈnajn]), literally "He of the Two Horns"   is a figure mentioned in the Qur'an, the sacred scripture of Islam, where he is described as a great and righteous ruler who built the wall that keeps Gog and Magog from attacking the people whom he met on his journey to the east (i.e., the rising of the sun). There are basic disagreements in Islamic sources about his identity, the historical period in which he lived, and the details of his life. In the East both the Syrian legend and the Quran, according to Ernst, have Alexander/Dhu al-Qarnayn find a people who live so close to the rising sun that they have no protection from its heat. , Early Muslim commentators and historians assimilated Dhu al-Qarnayn to several figures, among them Alexander the Macedonian, the Parthian king Kisrounis, the South-Arabian Himyarite king Sa'b Dhu Marathid, and the North-Arabian Lakhmid king al-Mundhir ibn Imru al-Qays. The Holy Prophet sa prophesied: At length, when he had filled up the space between the two steep mountain sides, he said, "Blow (with your bellows)" then, when he had made it (red) as fire, he said: "Bring me, that I may pour over it, molten lead. Either punish or show them kindness.". (He left them) as they were: We completely understood what was before him. And We shall present Hell that day for Unbelievers to see, all spread out,-. The sun did not rise nor set but Dhul Qarnayn actually found it rising and setting. Dhul Qarnayn trapped a people behind two mountains using a dam or gate of copper and iron These people are constantly digging from this trapped location until Allah allows them to escape and they will wreak havoc on humanity. The king traveled eastwards and westwards. meaning of Dhu al-Qarnayn) is allegedly referring to the two-horned ram mentioned in Book of Daniel, Chapter 8. He lived around 300 years before the birth of 'Isa (a). Ibn Kathir's tafsir on the Quran verses about Dhul-Qarnayn clearly asserts a flat Earth theory. This agrees with the construction of a dam by Dhu l-Qarnayn against the invasions of Gog and Magog. 'Dhu'l Qarnayn' as History In the Islamic tradition of scholarship, it is widely acknowledged that the Qur'anic theme of 'Dhu'l Qarnayn' has multiple layers of meanings- as of course, a narrative of 'history'; as a metaphor of ideal statecraft/just ruler-ship and as 'prophecy'. ", "Bring me blocks of iron." Abu Karb Shammir Yar'ash, the King of Himyar, https://en.wikishia.net/index.php?title=Dhu_l-Qarnayn&oldid=133794, Articles with quality and priority assessment, C grade priority and c grade quality articles, Cyrus's justice, good treatment of the peasants, generosity, and fairness in wars, according to the Old Testament and historians such as. : "He of the Two Horns"), also spelled Zu al-Qarnayn, appears in the Quran, Surah Al-Kahf (18), Ayahs 83-101 as one who travels to east and west and erects a wall between mankind and Gog and Magog (called Ya'juj and Ma'juj). Some people suggested that he was contemporary with, and a student of, Aristotle. It seems that many prominent Sunni exegetes of the early periods had no doubts about the view. : "He of the Two Horns"), appears in Quran 18:83-101 as one who travels to … Pronunciation of Dhul-Qadah with 2 audio pronunciations, 1 synonym, 3 translations and more for Dhul-Qadah. The hero ascends Mount Qof, the "mother" of all other mountains (identified with the Alborz mountains on the northern border of Iran), which is made of emerald and forms a ring encircling the entire Earth with veins under every land. At Dhu al-Qarnayn's request the mountain explains the origin of earthquakes: when God wills, the mountain causes one of its veins to throb, and thus an earthquake results. Surah Al-Kahf – Verses 92 - 93  "Qarn" also means "period" or "century", and the name Dhu al-Qarnayn therefore has a symbolic meaning as "He of the Two Ages", the first being the mythological time when the wall is built and the second the age of the end of the world when Allah's shariah, the divine law, is removed and Gog and Magog are to be set loose. (Verses 18:83-98). He was a polytheist and his prime minister was Aristotle. Showing page 1. Some people believed that he was a prophet, though he was not sent by God to guide people. In general, the popularity of some myths about Alexander in the early Islamic period and some similarities between such myths and the Quranic story of Dhu l-Qarnayn as well as the sanctification of Alexander in Alexandria during the Hellenistic period by the first Christian communities led to the identification of Dhu l-Qarnayn with Alexander by Muslim exegetes and historians. In general, the main views about the identity of Dhu l-Qarnayn in old and new Islamic sources include the following: According to one view, Dhu l-Qarnayn was an anonymous person who was neither a prophet, nor a king; rather he was a righteous servant of God. Among contemporary Sunni exegetes, Sayyid Qutb referred to Dhu l-Qarnayn only as Dhu l-Qarnayn and did not try to identify him, because, he believed, there is no assuring source at our disposal except the Qur'an, and exegetical views are mixed with myths and Isra'iliyyat. Lexicons inform us that Dhul-Qarnain is an Arabic word that refers to an individual who finds two different centuries. Anyone who reads the story of Dhu’l-Qarnayn and how he dealt with this nation in Soorat al-Kahf will know for sure that they exist and that the barrier which was built is not metaphorical or imaginary, but is a physical barrier built of iron and melted copper. "If he tells you about these things, then he is a prophet, so follow him, but if he does not tell you, then he is a man who is making things up, so deal with him as you see fit." The Qur'an illustrates Dhu l-Qarnayn as a believer in God and the Resurrection who was equipped with new tools with the help of God. Al-Qutb al-Rawandi mentions that his name was Ayaash, and that after Nuh he was the first ruler whose kingdom included (all) the countries of the east and west. After the Qur'an, the contents of different sources regarding Dhu l-Qarnayn were based on fictions and earlier views, although in some periods, authors tried to adopt a critical approach to such contents and to precisely identify Dhu l-Qarnayn.
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