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August 2002. 1), 22-96. Essential oils of tropical Asteromyrtus, Callistemon and Melaleuca species: in search of interesting oils with commercial potential. Firewood crops. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. Call a professional for stump and root removal if you do not have experience in the use of stump grinders or if the sweetgum tree is too large for successful removal with a small grinder. The leaf-blotching mirid, Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) (2010), Australia, Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (2007), US Fish and Wildlife Service, BOSTID Report No. Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnston RD, Kleinig DA, Turner JD, 1984. ; 46 ref. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 19(2):101-104. http://www.perfumerflavorist.com/jeor/contact. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 21(4):677-682. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/. In: Boland DJ, ed. Plant Disease, 80(2):145-150; 35 ref. Long-distance movement has been via international introductions throughout the tropics mainly as an ornamental, but also for windbreaks or for other agroforestry purposes. Alteration of groundwater and sediment geochemistry in a sulfidic backswamp due to Melaleuca quinquenervia encroachment. Melaleuca leucadendra var.angustifolia L.f. Melaleuca viridiflora var. Tyagarah Nature Reserve, NSW, Australia. M. quinquenervia was first described as a member of Metrosideros in 1797 by Cavanilles, and only later, in 1958, was it placed by Blake in the genus Melaleuca. Exploring the genetic resources of tropical melaleucas. The seeds are shed through 3-4 slits positioned horizontally below the capsule rim. http://www.fleppc.org/Manage_Plans/mplan.pdf. http://biological-diversity.info/invasive_flora, Blackwood JS, Pratt PD, 2007. A synonym, M. leucadendron L., has been used in a very broad sense, being incorrectly applied to a range of closely related broadleaved melaleucas, including M. quinquenervia. > 10°C, Cold average temp. The vegetation of Australia. Description of sweet gum tree: The sweet gum has a pyramidal habit when young, eventually becoming rounded and tall -- up to more than 100 feet. The Spotted Gum Tree House situated at Landcox St, Brighton East, Victoria is one perfect example! Australian Entomologist, 20(3):91-98. Two popular mallet varieties are the sugar gum tree (Eucalyptus cladocalyx) and the red-spotted gum tree (Eucalyptus mannifera).Both grow to about 50 to 60 feet tall (15-18 m.) and thrive in the warmer USDA plant hardiness zones 9 through 10. Hedychium flavescens. DOI:10.2179/05-27.1. Saturate the sweetgum tree stump with the herbicide mixture immediately after cutting the tree. It appears to tolerate a moderate level of groundwater salinity, but this condition is suboptimal for growth. List of non-native and Invasive flora of Belize. The eucalyptus tree, or gum tree as they are more popularly known, is a very common tree in Australia. Australian Entomologist, 21(4):137-142. Sept. 23-24, 1980, 37-68; 19 ref. Most natural vegetation in southern Florida can be invaded by M. quinquenervia, but invasion is more common on marshes and wet savannas than on forested sites (Geary, 1988). Streets RJ, 1962. Australian Journal of Soil Research. Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera). The owners of this residential property at Mudgeeraba on the Gold Coast, called us here at Tree Essence as they were concerned about the stability of the tree. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf. http://avhtas.tmag.tas.gov.au/, Biological Diversity in Belize, 2012. the ground. The bark is grayish brown and deeply furrowed. Fort Lauderdale, USA: USDA-ARS Invasive Plant Research Laboratory. CABI, 2005. Leaf essential oils of Melaleuca and Leptospermum species from tropical Australia. coriacea (Pior.) The white or creamy-white (rarely greenish or reddish) flowers are produced in thick, fluffy spikes. Report to the Nature Conservancy. If an appropriate space is available, check out the cold-hardy cultivar, 'Moraine', which is recommended for northern Illinois. Essential oils of tropical ^italic~Asteromyrtus, Callistemon^roman~ and ^italic~Melaleuca^roman~ species: in search of interesting oils with commercial potential., 143 pp. Invasion history of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, USDA-ARS, 2003. Herbivorous insects associated with the paperbark Melaleuca quinquenervia and its allies: VI. 40. They serve an important purpose in the flora make-up of the country. Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree); leaves and twig. Retithrips syriacus (Mayet), the black vine thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera: Thripidae) new to Puerto Rico. (2009) modeled the risk of range expansion both under current climate and as modified by climate change to the 2080s. Sevillano L, Horvitz CC, Pratt PD, 2010. World Agroforestry Centre, 2002. Natural enemy density and soil type influence growth and survival of Melaleuca quinquenervia seedlings. Brophy JJ, Boland DJ, Lassak EV, 1989. IABIN, 2003. http://www.issg.org/database. Biological control of weeds in waterways and on public lands in the southern-eastern United States of America. Agroforestree Database. Forest Products Journal, 33(3):39-43; 3 pl. In the Bahamas, M. quinquenervia occurs in swamp forests, and around ponds and scrublands on the edges of pinelands and is an aggressive invasive in the wetlands. The stem is moderately straight to crooked, the crown is narrow and open, or fairly dense. Recent reports (Pratt and Center, 2012) suggest that both B. melaleucae and O. vitiosa have spread well outside their intended geographic range of Florida. Description of the larva of Lophodiplosis trifida, an Australian gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and biocontrol agent of paperbark in Florida, USA. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Report to the Nature Conservancy. I'm not a fan of the tree and noticed it has what appears to be a shallow root system. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Blake (Niaouli) from Benin using multivariate statistical analysis of their essential oils. (Myrtaceae). Black gum is an excellent choice to add autumn color to your garden. Tahara K, Norisada M, Hogetsu T, Kojima K, 2005. Sap-sucking Psyllid pesters pushy plant, USDA Agricultural Research Service. Lowland tropical hardwoods. Designed by Merrylees Architecture, the proposal was plotted around the gum’s considerable structural root zone, which proved to be challenging due to the location of… https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-ARS, 2007. In Florida it has been reported as converting wetland to upland, displacing native plants in prairie marshes, and invading cypress swamps, pine flatwoods, hardwood bottomlands, and mangrove swamps (Buckingham, 2004). Bultman JD, Beal RH, Huffman JB, Parrish KK, 1983. Florida Division of Forestry. 0 0. gutterman1973. Economic Botany, 37(3):292-298; 8 ref. In more fertile soil, eucalyptus tree roots have no need to descend very far to search for nutrients. Pollutant removal capability of a constructed Melaleuca wetland receiving primary settled sewage. The PLANTS Database., Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: USA National Plant Data Team. Facts on the Sweet Gum Tree. Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. Wood Science, 13(4):216-219; 12 ref. Brown SH, Duke ER, 2000 2001. It gives me a plentiful supply of spiked gumballs. Here it is found on all soil types but mainly on sedimentary or metamorphic soils, and rarely on soils derived from ultrabasic rocks (Cherrier, 1981; Valet et al., 1998).AssociationsIt is usually the dominant species, and frequently occurs in more or less pure stands. Environmental Conservation, 5:25-34. The leaves flutter easily in the slightest of breezes and form a rounded canopy. It is usually the dominant species, and frequently occurs in more or less pure stands. [Le niaouli en Nouvelle-Caledonie (Melaleuca quinquenervia S.T. In Florida, USA, seedlings may grow throughout the year, but growth is most rapid in summer (Woodall, 1981). Burrows DW, Balciunas JK, 1998. The mean maximum temperature of the hottest month ranges from 26ºC in the south to about 34ºC in the north and the corresponding minimum temperatures of the coolest month are 4ºC and 20ºC. Brundrett M, Bougher N, Dell B, Grove T, Malajczuk N, 1996. Blake essential oil. Young shoots are densely hairy and therefore silvery in appearance, with hairs 0.25-2 mm long, which are appressed on the leaves and ascending on the twigs (Blake, 1968). USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Australian Journal of Entomology, 42(3):215-232. Cronk QCB, Fuller JL, 1995. Spotted Gums Achilles' heel is its susceptivity to frost so it should no be planted in frost hollows. Burrows DW, Balciunas JK, Edwards ED, 1994. 6 (Special Issue No. Blake ST, Roff C, 1958. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/AFT.htm, Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. I have a sweet gum tree. ACIAR-Monograph, No. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 45(8):1509-1519; 11 ref. ; [B]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. ref. The Cajeput tree-a boon and an affliction. Honey and pollen flora. Florida Entomologist, 86(3):300-322. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/. Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Daltry JC, 2009. Source(s): https://shrinkurl.im/a0DGx. Weiss EA, 1997. Melaleuca spp. Pinyopusarerk K, 1989. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Trials in Benin by Gbenou et al. The trunk is normally st… August 2011. In: Boland DJ, ed. Sweetgum trees are resistant against herbicides with 2,4-D as its main ingredient. USA. Chemotypes in Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Tia Shamoon has been writing online since 2009, specializing in topics such as interior decorating, party planning, history, family, frugal living and cooking. Measure the sweetgum tree and mark it at one foot above ground level. (Boland et al., 1984). Sweetgum trees develop surface roots as it matures and severing one major root within a small diameter of the trunk may kill up to 25 percent of the tree’s root system. Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree); foliage. Site requirements for Melaleuca seedling establishment. (1995) provide climatic profiles for M. quinquenervia combining information from both natural and planted occurrences. Beadle NCW, 1981. Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree); leaves and bifurcate fruits. Blake (Niaouli) from Benin using multivariate statistical analysis of their essential oils. Greenway M, 1994. I think that's what you call the nasty thing. Patterns of genetic diversity and nature of the breeding system in Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae). Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.tropicos.org/. Binggeli P, 1999. 01 Jul 2020 Australian Journal of Soil Research, 41(7):1343-1367. My ? Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. It often occurs close to the beach and will tolerate wind-blown salt. form symbiotic mycorrhizal associations between the roots and various fungi. Sept. 23-24, 1980. Much of the root system of a Sweet Gum tree is shallow (just beneath the surface of the soil. The roots of M. quinquenervia trees growing on stream banks, in fresh or brackish waters in swamps and seepage areas of New South Wales, Australia, were found to possess both vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and ectomycorrhiza ( Khan, 1993 ). at ends of chapters]. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf, Lee E W S, Hau B C H, Corlett R T, 2005. at end of book]. Ramanoelina PAR, Viano J, Bianchini JP, Gaydou EM, 1994. Not all herbicides work in the same way, and some trees are resistant to certain herbicides. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C, Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. Australian Entomologist, 20(1):13-24, Balciunas JK, Burrows DW, 1993. Sweetgum grows in a narrow pyramid to a height of 75 feet and may spread to 50 feet. However, one of the ongoing problems with the red flowering gum has been that it’s always been grown from … Florida Entomologist, 90(2):413-414. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Herbicides are used to prevent resprouting, but studies suggest that the use of herbicides can cause the tree to release a large amount of stored seeds (Swearingen, 1997). List of non-native and Invasive flora of Belize., http://biological-diversity.info/invasive_flora. Melaleuca as an alternative to pine bark in the potting medium. Physiological host range of two highly specialised mutualistic symbiotes: the fly Fergusonina turneri and its obligate nematode Fergusobia quinquenerviae, potential biocontrol agents of Melaleuca quinquenervia. BioControl [Proceedings of the "Biological Control for Nature" meeting, Northampton, Massachusetts, USA, 3-7 October 2010. Experts say that 90 percent of a cultivated eucalyptus’s root system is found in the top 12 inches (30.5 cm.) Amsterdam, Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers, x + 285 pp. Severing the Roots. 41 (7), 1343-1367. Several other studies have been carried out in Australia on potential control agents, including the tube-dwelling moth, Poliopaschia lithochlora, the gall-forming cecidomyiid midges, Lophodiplosis indentata and Lophyrotoma zonalis. In more tropical environments the species tends to flower more often and flowering events are longer and later (Clemson, 1985). Huffman JB, 1981. The Spotted Gum is botanically called Corymbia maculata. Over 400 herbivorous insects were found in association with this tree and its close allies in Australia (Balciunas et al., 1993a, b; Burrows et al., 1994) but damage was localized, and it suffers only slight damage from sawflies (Marcar et al., 1995). Yap, Pohnpei, but only recorded as invasive and cultivated on Yap, Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Average temp. ACIAR-Monograph, No. Melaleuca quinquenervia, Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 31:265-270, Balciunas JK, Burrows DW, Edwards ED, 1993. 10:49-68; [refs. Weber (2003) also notes that in fire-tolerant communities, fires can be used during the dry season to control the seedlings.Mechanical control Amer A, Mehlhorn H, 2006. The beautifully glossy, star-shaped leaves turn bright red, purple, yellow or orange in the fall (USDA hardiness zones 6 and 7) and early winter (USDA hardiness zones 8 and 9). Woodall SL, 1981. 1983, vii + 92 pp. Plant introduction, naturalization, and invasion in French Guiana (South America). The heartwood lacks resistance to damage by termites, fungi and marine borers (Bultman et al., 1983). Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Biological Diversity in Belize, 2012. Ecological Consequences of invasion by Melaleuca quinquenervia in South Florida wetlands: Paradise damaged, not lost, Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Department, University of Florida. Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree); fruits. Herbivorous insects associated with the paperbark Melaleuca quinquenervia and its allies: I. Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Austin (1978) reported that species diversity decreases by 60-80% in wet prairies and marshes where M. quinquenervia invades. IPRL Offshoots. Seaham, New South Wales, Australia. Bringing out the best in waste wood. Proceedings of Melaleuca symposium. Pukalani Community Center, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Environmental Entomology, 42(5):925-935. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/envent/2013/00000042/00000005/art00011, Purcell MF, Balciunas JK, 1994. ; 4 ref. ; 77 ref. Morton JF, 1966. Find gum trees stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Forest trees of Australia. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Occurrence of various chemotypes in niaouli [Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. Biology and host range of Pomponatius typicus Distant (Heteroptera: Coreidae), a potential biological control agent for the paperbark tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia, in southern Florida. Westbrooks RG, 1998. It has been introduced to other parts of Australia (Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2007) and also to many other parts of the world, and is very likely to be under-recorded in the distribution table, especially in Africa and Asia. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html. Australian Journal of Entomology, 44(1):77-82. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/rd.asp?code=AEN&goto=journal, Gbenou JD, Moudachirou M, Chalchat JC, Figuérédo G, 2007. http://issg.appfa.auckland.ac.nz/database/species/ecology.asp?si=45&ver=print. Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Sydney, Australia: McGraw-Hill Book Company, viii + 443pp. Occurrence and importance of mycorrhizae in aquatic trees of New South Wales, Australia. Sept. 23-24, 1980. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Van TK, Rayamajhi MB, Center TD, 2005. United States Node of the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Net (IABIN). The leaves of the black gum tree are an elongated oval shape that offer a brilliant fall show. Corymbia maculata (Spotted gum) The Spotted gum is a tall forest tree up to 45m and is very similar in appearance to the Lemon-scented gum. Online Database. S. T. Blake Wetland in South-eastern Queensland. Arthropods associated with above-ground portions of the invasive tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia, in South Florida, USA. A comparison of landscape mulches: chemical, allelopathic, and decomposition properties. Of the species and chemotypes evaluated by Doran et al. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Bootle KR, 1983. Types (iii) and (iv) are readily distinguished from the others as crushed leaves release a distinctive sweetish floral odour (Weiss, 1997). USDA-NRCS, 2002. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. Giornale Italiano di Entomologia, 10(50):103-106. Invasive plants, changing the landscape of America: Fact book. Doran JC, Turnbull JW, 1997. The release and unsuccessful establishment of the Melaleuca biological control agent Fergusonina turneri and its mutualistic nematode Fergusobia quinquenerviae. Chemotypes in Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Journal of Medical Entomology, 48(2):405-410. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jme/2011/00000048/00000002/art00038, Pavela R, 2008. July 2018. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 89(5):523-530. Before mixing herbicides, wear safety equipment, such as goggles, work gloves and long sleeves. On some trees, particularly in the northern part of its range, branches are covered with characteristic corky projections. ; 36 pl. The integrated management control efforts of M. quinquenervia in Florida cost $25 million up to 1999, but it is estimated that failing to control the species would cost $161 million annually in lost revenues, etc. Wahinepee, Maui, Hawaii. Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree); peeling bark, showing its ‘papery’ nature. In Hawaii, with applications to drilled holes, glyphosate was very effective, dicamba and triclopyr fairly effective and 2,4-D not effective, and saplings were sensitive to foliar applications of triclopyr (PIER, 2007).Biological control 71 (3), 210-225. 6 1 Figure 2.Plan-view diagram of the horizontal woody root system developed from a single lateral root of red maple about 60 years old.Sohd circles show the location of other trees m the stand.Arrows indicate that the root tips were not found; therefore these roots continued somewhat farther than is shown.From Lyford and Wilson, 1964. four meters (3 to 15 ft) from the trunk to form http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl, USDA-ARS, 2007. Cultural control ; many ref. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 45 m (148 ft) high. Some post-emergent herbicides kill established tree-root systems. Unmanaged weedy stands may have tree densities of 7000-20,000 stems/ha, thus crowding out native vegetation and wildlife habitats (Geiger, 1991; Loope et al., 1994). Wahinepee, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Paper-bark tree alters habitats in Florida. Queensland, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Stock. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2002/021107.htm?pf=1. In: Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. The seasonal incidence varies from a moderate summer-autumn maximum in the south, to a strong monsoonal pattern in the north. Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), 2010. Cheel. Blake in Florida. Bolton KGE, Greenway M, 1999. Florida Entomologist, 96(1):278-279. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/, Pratt PD, Rayamajhi MB, Tipping PW, Center TD, Wright SA, Purcell M, 2013. Melaleuca quinquenervia (paperbark tree); foliage and fruits. Ohio State University Extension: Relative Effectiveness of Herbicides Commonly Used to Control, University of Minnesota Extension: Removing Trees and Shrubs, Penn State University: Controlling Weeds in Nursery and Landscape Plantings. Conde LF, Rockwood DL, Fisher RF, 1981. Sweetgum trees grow in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 10. Online Database. Australasian Plant Pathology, 41(1):13-29. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w8538 mu25rh72870/fulltext.html. Geometridae (Lepidoptera). Hurricane impact on uplands and freshwater swamp forest. M. quinquenervia has become a threat to the stability of Florida's Everglades ecosystem (Flores, 2002). Biological Invasions, 11(8):1883-1894. http://www.springerlink.com/content/j367228575537673/fulltext.html. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 113:180-182. Proceedings of Melaleuca symposium. Pratt PD, Blackwood S, Wright SA, Purcell M, Rayamajhi MB, Giblin-Davis RM, Scheffer SJ, Tipping PW, Center TD, 2013. Martin MR, Tipping PW, Sickman JO, 2009. Tallahassee, Florida USA, 1-8, Costello SL, Pratt PD, Rayamajhi MB, Center TD, 2003. Florida Division of Forestry Tallahassee, Florida USA, 125-128. Chemical control Stablein JJ, Bucholtz GA, Lockey RF, 2002. Gum Tree Root System. Grover DR, Slater PJ, 1994. Their aggressively spreading roots may connect to nearby trees, causing a union in their vascular systems and using herbicides on sweetgum trees that have shared vascular systems may potentially damage desirable trees when the herbicides travel through the sweetgum tree’s roots. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Proceedings of Melaleuca symposium. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). http://www.bananatrustslu.com/index.php?link=doccentre&project=sfa2003, Dray F A Jr, Bennett B C, Center T D, 2006. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 42(5):1177-1182; 23 ref. There may be a sparse shrub layer or lower storey including species such as Banksia robur, M. glomerata, M. thymifolia, Dillenia alata and Barringtonia racemosa (Beadle, 1981; Tracey, 1982; Gillison, 1983). Hawkeswood TJ, 2002. Gum trees make up the majority of trees in the country. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 47(6):755-761. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/72.htm. Cut stumps can be treated with a wetland-approved imazpyr mixed with 20% water, and trees can also be girdled and treated with imazpyr diluted with 50% water, though basally applied herbicides are not effective (PIER, 2007). In mixed stands, common tree associates include Eucalyptus robusta, E. signata, E. tereticornis, M. viridiflora and Lophostemon suaveolens. They have such short and wide root system so they can absorb water as soon as it hits . Park HyeMi, Kim JunHeon, Chang KyuSik, Kim ByungSeok, Yang YuJung, Kim GilHah, Shin SangChul, Park IlKwon, 2011. Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. Callaghan J, McAlpine C, Thompson J, Mitchell D, Bowen M, Rhodes J, Jong Cde, Sternberg R, Scott A, 2011. Polyphenols of Melaleuca quinquenervia leaves - pharmacological studies of grandinin.

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